2S,4R ketoconazole or levoketoconazole is the 2S,4R enantiomer of ketoconazole, purified from racemic ketoconazole. Both enantiomers exerts antifungal activity. Ketoconazole activates AhR in gene reporter cell line and dose-dependently induces CYP1A1 mRNA and CYP1A1 protein in HepG2 cells, with enantiospecific pattern, i.e. 2R,4S ketoconazole was much more active as compared to 2S,4R ketoconazole. Levoketoconazole was shown to be a more potent inhibitor than the 2R,4S enantiomer of several enzymes in the steroidogenic pathway (CYP11B1, CYP17 and CYP21). Levoketoconazole was tested for the treatment of endogenous Cushing’s syndrome (Phase III) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (Phase II). NCATS
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