Rifaximin is a structural analog of rifampin and a non-systemic, gastrointestinal site-specific antibiotic. Rifaximin acts by inhibiting bacterial ribonucleic acid (RNA) synthesis and contributes to restore intestinal microflora imbalance. It is FDA approved for the treatment of travelers’ diarrhea, reduction in risk of overt hepatic encephalopathy (HE) recurrence and treatment of irritable bowel syndrome with diarrhea. More common side effects are: black, tarry stools; dizziness or lightheadedness; muscle spasm; rapid breathing; shortness of breath; trouble sleeping. Co-administration of cyclosporine, with XIFAXAN resulted in 83-fold and 124-fold increases in rifaximin mean Cmax in healthy subjects. NCATS
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