Active Ingredient History

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Glucagon is a polypeptide hormone identical to human glucagon that increases blood glucose and relaxes smooth muscle of the gastrointestinal tract. Glucagon is synthesized in a special non-pathogenic laboratory strain of Escherichia coli bacteria that has been genetically altered by the addition of the gene for glucagon. Glucagon generally elevates the concentration of glucose in the blood by promoting gluconeogenesis and glycogenolysis. Glucagon also decreases fatty acid synthesis in adipose tissue and the liver, as well as promoting lipolysis in these tissues, which causes them to release fatty acids into circulation where they can be catabolised to generate energy in tissues such as skeletal muscle when required. Glucose is stored in the liver in the form of the polysaccharide glycogen, which is a glucan (a polymer made up of glucose molecules). Liver cells (hepatocytes) have glucagon receptors. When glucagon binds to the glucagon receptors, the liver cells convert the glycogen into individual glucose molecules and release them into the bloodstream, in a process known as glycogenolysis. As these stores become depleted, glucagon then encourages the liver and kidney to synthesize additional glucose by gluconeogenesis. Glucagon turns off glycolysis in the liver, causing glycolytic intermediates to be shuttled to gluconeogenesis. Glucagon also regulates the rate of glucose production through lipolysis. Glucagon induces lipolysis in humans under conditions of insulin suppression (such as diabetes mellitus type 1). Glucagon increases blood glucose concentration and is used in the treatment of hypoglycemia. Glucagon administered through a parenteral route relaxes smooth muscle of the stomach, duodenum, small bowel, and colon. Glucagon is also indicated as a diagnostic aid in the radiologic examination of the stomach, duodenum, small bowel, and colon when diminished intestinal motility would be advantageous.   NCATS

  • SMILES: CSCC[C@H](NC(=O)[C@H](CC(C)C)NC(=O)[C@H](Cc1c[nH]c2ccccc12)NC(=O)[C@H](CCC(=O)N)NC(=O)[C@@H](NC(=O)[C@H](Cc3ccccc3)NC(=O)[C@H](CC(=O)O)NC(=O)[C@H](CCC(=O)N)NC(=O)[C@H](C)NC(=O)[C@H](CCCN=C(N)N)NC(=O)[C@H](CCCN=C(N)N)NC(=O)[C@H](CO)NC(=O)[C@H](CC(=O)O)NC(=O)[C@H](CC(C)C)NC(=O)[C@H](Cc4ccc(O)cc4)NC(=O)[C@H](CCCCN)NC(=O)[C@H](CO)NC(=O)[C@H](Cc5ccc(O)cc5)NC(=O)[C@H](CC(=O)O)NC(=O)[C@H](CO)NC(=O)[C@@H](NC(=O)[C@H](Cc6ccccc6)NC(=O)[C@@H](NC(=O)CNC(=O)[C@H](CCC(=O)N)NC(=O)[C@H](CO)NC(=O)[C@@H](N)Cc7c[nH]cn7)[C@@H](C)O)[C@@H](C)O)C(C)C)C(=O)N[C@@H](CC(=O)N)C(=O)N[C@@H]([C@@H](C)O)C(=O)O
  • InChIKey: MASNOZXLGMXCHN-ZLPAWPGGSA-N
  • Mol. Mass: 3482.8
  • ALogP: Missing data
  • ChEMBL Molecules:
More Chemistry
  • Mechanism of Action:
  • Multi-specific: Missing data
  • Black Box: No
  • Availability: Prescription Only
  • Delivery Methods: Parenteral
  • Pro Drug: No
biod-961 | glucagen | glucagen hypokit | glucagon | glucagone | glucagon emergency kit | glucagon hcl | glucagon, human | glucagon hydrochloride | glucagon hydrochloride recombinant | glucagonoid | glucagon, porcine | glucagon recombinant | glucagon (recombinant dna origin) | glucagonum | glukagon | hyperglycemic-glycogenolytic factor

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