Active Ingredient History
Primidone is an anticonvulsant of the barbiturate class. It was introduced in 1954 under the brand name Mysoline by Wyeth in the United States. Mysoline, used alone or concomitantly with other anticonvulsants, is indicated in the control of grand mal, psychomotor, and focal epileptic seizures. It may control grand mal seizures refractory to other anticonvulsant therapy. Mysoline raises electro- or chemoshock seizure thresholds or alters seizure patterns in experimental animals. The mechanism(s) of primidone’s antiepileptic action is not known. Primidone per se has anticonvulsant activity, as do its two metabolites, phenobarbital and phenylethylmalonamide (PEMA). In addition to its anticonvulsant activity, PEMA potentiates the anticonvulsant activity of phenobarbital in experimental animals. Primidone itself doesn’t act on GABA-A receptors. It is active metabolite - phenobarbital primary acts via modulation of GABA -A receptors. The most frequently occurring early side effects are ataxia and vertigo. These tend to disappear with continued therapy, or with reduction of initial dosage. Occasionally, the following have been reported: nausea, anorexia, vomiting, fatigue, hyperirritability, emotional disturbances, sexual impotency, diplopia, nystagmus, drowsiness, and morbilliform skin eruptions.Granulocytopenia, agranulocytosis, and red-cell hypoplasia and aplasia, have been reported rarely. These and, occasionally, other persistant or severe side effects may necessitate withdrawal of the drug. Megaloblastic anemia may occur as a rare idiosyncrasy to Mysoline and to other anticonvulsants. The anemia responds to folic acid without necessity of discontinuing medication. NCATS
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