Active Ingredient History

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Glucosamine is an amino sugar and a prominent precursor in the biochemical synthesis of glycosylated proteins and lipids. Glucosamine is part of the structure of the polysaccharides chitosan and chitin, which compose the exoskeletons of crustaceans and other arthropods, as well as the cell walls of fungi and many higher organisms. Glucosamine is one of the most abundant monosaccharides. It is produced commercially by the hydrolysis of crustacean exoskeletons or, less commonly, by fermentation of a grain such as corn or wheat. Oral glucosamine is a dietary supplement and is not a pharmaceutical drug. It is illegal in the US to market any dietary supplement as a treatment for any disease or condition. Glucosamine is marketed to support the structure and function of joints, and the marketing is targeted to people suffering from osteoarthritis. Commonly sold forms of glucosamine are glucosamine sulfate, glucosamine hydrochloride, and N-acetylglucosamine. Of the three commonly available forms of glucosamine, only glucosamine sulfate is given a "likely effective" rating for treating osteoarthritis. Glucosamine is often sold in combination with other supplements such as chondroitin sulfate and methylsulfonylmethane. Glucosamine, along with commonly used chondroitin, is not routinely prescribed to treat people who have symptomatic osteoarthritis of the knee, as there is insufficient evidence that this treatment is helpful. One clinical study over three years showed that glucosamine in doses of 1500 mg per day is safe to use. Glucosamine with or without chondroitin elevates the international normalized ratio (INR) in individuals who are taking the blood thinner, warfarin. It may also interfere with the efficacy of chemotherapy for treating cancer symptoms. Adverse effects may include stomach upset, constipation, diarrhea, headache, and rash. There are case reports of people who have chronic liver disease and a worsening of their condition with glucosamine supplementation. Glucosamine is naturally present in the shells of shellfish, animal bones, bone marrow, and fungi. D-Glucosamine is made naturally in the form of glucosamine-6-phosphate, and is the biochemical precursor of all nitrogen-containing sugars. Specifically in humans, glucosamine-6-phosphate is synthesized from fructose 6-phosphate and glutamine by glutamine—fructose-6-phosphate transaminase as the first step of the hexosamine biosynthesis pathway. The end-product of this pathway is uridine diphosphate N-acetylglucosamine (UDP-GlcNAc), which is then used for making glycosaminoglycans, proteoglycans, and glycolipids. As the formation of glucosamine-6-phosphate is the first step for the synthesis of these products, glucosamine may be important in regulating their production; however, the way that the hexosamine biosynthesis pathway is actually regulated, and whether this could be involved in contributing to human disease remains unclear.   NCATS

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2-amino-2-deoxy-d-glucose | alateris | ardern | bio-health | br pharm | chitosamine | cozachew fizz | cozachew fizz combi | cozachew meltdown 1500 | cozachew meltdown combi | d-glucosamine | dolenio | flexi-melt | fosachew | fosaveg | glucosamine | glucosamine hcl | glucosamine hcl meltdown | glucosamine hydrochloride | glucosamine sulf | glucosamine sulfate | glucosamine sulfate potassium chloride | glucosamine sulphate | glusartel | gosachew | gosaveg | joint-flex daily | pro coxam

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