Active Ingredient History
Zileuton is an asthma drug that differs chemically and pharmacologically from other antiasthmatic agents. It blocks leukotriene synthesis by inhibiting 5-lipoxygenase, an enzyme of the eicosanoid synthesis pathway. Current data indicates that asthma is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the airways involving the production and activity of several endogenous inflammatory mediators, including leukotrienes. Sulfido-peptide leukotrienes (LTC4, LTD4, LTE4, also known as the slow-releasing substances of anaphylaxis) and LTB4, a chemoattractant for neutrophils and eosinophils, are derived from the initial unstable product of arachidonic acid metabolism, leukotriene A4 (LTA4), and can be measured in a number of biological fluids including bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) from asthmatic patients. In humans, pretreatment with zileuton attenuated bronchoconstriction caused by cold air challenge in patients with asthma. Zileuton is a specific inhibitor of 5-lipoxygenase and thus inhibits leukotriene (LTB4, LTC4, LTD4, and LTE4) formation. Both the R(+) and S(-) enantiomers are pharmacologically active as 5-lipoxygenase inhibitors in in vitro systems. Leukotrienes are substances that induce numerous biological effects including augmentation of neutrophil and eosinophil migration, neutrophil and monocyte aggregation, leukocyte adhesion, increased capillary permeability, and smooth muscle contraction. These effects contribute to inflammation, edema, mucus secretion, and bronchoconstriction in the airways of asthmatic patients. Zileuton is marketed under the trade name ZYFLO. NCATS
Drug Pricing (per unit)
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