Bortezomib is the therapeutic proteasome inhibitor. First, which is tested in humans. The boron atom in bortezomib binds the catalytic site of the 26S proteasome with high affinity and specificity. Bortezomib is approved in the U.S. for treating relapsed multiple myeloma and mantle cell lymphoma. The 26S proteasome degrades various proteins critical to cancer cell survival, such as cyclins, tumor suppressors, BCL-2, and cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors. Inhibition of these degradations sensitizes cells to apoptosis. Bortezomib is a potent inhibitor of 26S proteasome, which sensitizes activity in dividing multiple myeloma and leukemic cells, thus inducing apoptosis. Most commonly reported adverse reactions (incidence ≥30%) in clinical studies include asthenic conditions, diarrhea, nausea, constipation, peripheral neuropathy, vomiting, pyrexia, thrombocytopenia, psychiatric disorders, anorexia and decreased appetite, neutropenia, neuralgia, leukopenia and anemia. Co-administration of ketoconazole, a potent CYP3A inhibitor, increased the exposure of bortezomib. Co-administration of melphalan-prednisone increased the exposure of bortezomib. However, this increase is unlikely to be clinically relevant. NCATS
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