Tolvaptan is a selective and competitive arginine vasopressin receptor 2 antagonist. Vasopressin acts on the V2 receptors found in the walls of the vasculature and luminal membranes of renal collecting ducts. By blocking V2 receptors in the renal collecting ducts, aquaporins do not insert themselves into the walls thus preventing water absorption. This action ultimately results in an increase in urine volume, decrease urine osmolality, and increase electrolyte-free water clearance to reduce intravascular volume and an increase serum sodium levels. Tolvaptan is especially useful for heart failure patients as they have higher serum levels of vasopressin. Tolvaptan is used to treat low blood sodium levels (hyponatremia) associated with various conditions like congestive heart failure, cirrhosis, and syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormones (SIADH). FDA approved on May 19, 2009. Tolvaptan is sold under the trade names Samsca and Jinarc. NCATS
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