Sofosbuvir is a nucleotide analog inhibitor of hepatitis C virus NS5B polymerase - the key enzyme mediating HCV RNA replication. Sofosbuvir is a prodrug and after ingestion it is rapidly converted to GS-331007, the predominant circulating drug that accounts for greater than 90% of the systemically active drug. The compound GS-331007 is efficiently taken up by hepatocytes, whereby cellular kinases convert GS-331007 to its pharmacologically active uridine analog 5’-triphosphate form (GS-461203). This triphosphate compound mimics the natural cellular uridine nucleotide and is incorporated by the HCV RNA polymerase into the elongating RNA primer strand, resulting in chain termination. The active form GS-461203 targets the NS5B catalytic site and acts as a non-obligate chain terminator. The active compound (GS-461203) does not inhibit host DNA polymerases, RNA polymerases, or mitochondrial RNA polymerase. Sofosbuvir (alone or in in combination with other medications) is used to treat Hepatitis C. NCATS
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