Active Ingredient History
Praziquantel, marketed as Biltricide, is an anthelmintic used in humans and animals for the treatment of tapeworms and flukes. Specifically, it is effective against schistosoma, Clonorchis sinensis the fish tape worm Diphyllobothrium latum. Praziquantel works by causing severe spasms and paralysis of the worms' muscles. This paralysis is accompanied - and probably caused - by a rapid Ca 2+ influx inside the schistosome. Morphological alterations are another early effect of praziquantel. These morphological alterations are accompanied by an increased exposure of schistosome antigens at the parasite surface. The worms are then either completely destroyed in the intestine or passed in the stool. An interesting quirk of praziquantel is that it is relatively ineffective against juvenile schistosomes. While initially effective, effectiveness against schistosomes decreases until it reaches a minimum at 3-4 weeks. Effectiveness then increases again until it is once again fully effective at 6-7 weeks. Glutathione S-transferase (GST), an essential detoxification enzyme in parasitic helminths, is a major vaccine target and a drug target against schistosomiasis. Schistosome calcium ion channels are currently the only known target of praziquantel. The antibiotic rifampicin decreases plasma concentrations of praziquantel. Carbamazepine and phenytoin are reported to reduce the bioavailability of praziquantel. Chloroquine reduces the bioavailability of praziquantel. The drug cimetidine heightens praziquantel bioavailability. NCATS
Drug Pricing (per unit)
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