Desmopressin is a chemical that is similar to Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH), which is found naturally in the body and is produced by the hypothalamus and stored, in the posterior pituitary gland. The main function of ADH is to regulate extracellular fluid volume in the body. ADH secretion is stimulated by angiotensin II, linking it to the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS). ADH stimulates water reabsorption in the kidneys by causing the insertion of aquaporin-2 channels on the apical surface of cells of the distal convoluted tubule and collecting tubules. Desmopressin also causes vasoconstriction through its action on vascular smooth muscle cells of the collecting tubules. It increases urine concentration and decreases urine production. Acetate salt of desmopressin is sold under brand name DDAVP with different formulations: DDAVP Nasal Spray is indicated as antidiuretic replacement therapy in the management of central cranial diabetes insipidus and for management of the temporary polyuria and polydipsia following head trauma or surgery in the pituitary region. It is ineffective for the treatment of nephrogenic diabetes insipidus. DDAVP Injection is indicated for patients with hemophilia A with factor VIII coagulant activity levels greater than 5% and is indicated for patients with mild to moderate classic von Willebrand’s disease (Type I) with factor VIII levels greater than 5%. It was suggested that desmopressin-induced relaxation was mediated by a receptor subtype sharing both V1A and V2 pharmacological profiles. NCATS
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