Human Insulin, also known as Regular Insulin, is a short-acting form of insulin used for the treatment of hyperglycemia caused by Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes. Human insulin is produced by recombinant DNA technology and is identical to endogenously produced insulin. Insulin lowers blood glucose levels by stimulating peripheral glucose uptake by skeletal muscle and fat, and by inhibiting hepatic glucose production. Insulin inhibits lipolysis in adipocytes, inhibits proteolysis, and enhances protein synthesis. Human insulin begins to exert its effects within 30 minutes of subcutaneous administration, while peak levels occur 3-4 hours after administration. Due to its quick onset of action, human insulin is considered "bolus insulin" as it provides high levels of insulin in a short period of time to mimic the release of endogenous insulin from the pancreas after meals. Bolus insulin is often combined with once daily, long-acting "basal insulin" to provide low concentrations of background insulin that can keep blood sugar stable between meals or overnight. Use of basal and bolus insulin together is intended to mimic the pancreas' production of endogenous insulin, with a goal of avoiding any periods of hypoglycemia. NCATS
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