Rifampin is an antibiotic that inhibits DNA-dependent RNA polymerase activity in susceptible cells. Specifically, it interacts with bacterial RNA polymerase but does not inhibit the mammalian enzyme. It is bactericidal and has a very broad spectrum of activity against most gram-positive and gram-negative organisms (including Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and specifically Mycobacterium tuberculosis. It is FDA approved for the treatment of tuberculosis, meningococcal carrier state. Healthy subjects who received rifampin 600 mg once daily concomitantly with saquinavir 1000 mg/ritonavir 100 mg twice daily (ritonavir-boosted saquinavir) developed severe hepatocellular toxicity. Rifampin has been reported to substantially decrease the plasma concentrations of the following antiviral drugs: atazanavir, darunavir, fosamprenavir, saquinavir, and tipranavir. These antiviral drugs must not be co-administered with rifampin. Common adverse reactions include heartburn, epigastric distress, anorexia, nausea, vomiting, jaundice, flatulence, cramps. NCATS
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