Ceftaroline is a fifth-generation broad-spectrum cephalosporin with potent antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogens. Ceftaroline is the bioactive metabolite of ceftaroline fosamil, an N-phosphonoamino water-soluble cephalosporin prodrug, which is rapidly converted in vivo upon the hydrolysis of the phosphonate group by plasma phosphatises. Ceftaroline fosamil is being developed by Forest Laboratories, under a license from Takeda. In 2010, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved ceftaroline fosamil for use in the treatment of acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections as well as community-acquired pneumonia. Ceftaroline has bactericidal activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, therefore serving as an attractive alternative agent for the treatment of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia when approved agents are contraindicated or treatment failures have occurred. Like other β-lactams, ceftaroline’s mechanism of action is mediated by binding to the penicillin-binding protein (PBP), the enzyme mediating the cross-linking transpeptidation of the peptidoglycan which are the terminal steps in completing formation of the bacterial cell wall. MRSA strains have a mutated PBP2a which prohibits β-lactam antibiotics from accessing its active site that mediates the transpeptidation reaction. Ceftaroline possesses an ethoxyimino side-chain mimicking a portion of a cell wall structure, which acts as a “Trojan horse”, allosterically opening and facilitating access to the active site of the PBP2a. Based on clinical trial data to date, ceftaroline appears to be safe and well-tolerated. Since ceftaroline is a cephalosporin, it has caused serious hypersensitivity reactions in patients who are allergic to cephalosporins and among some patients with penicillin allergies. NCATS
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