Cefepime is a fourth-generation cephalosporin antibiotic, which was developed in 1994. Cefepime has a broad spectrum in vitro activity that encompasses a wide range of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Within bacterial cells, the molecular targets of cefepime are the penicillin binding proteins (PBP). It is FDA approved for the treatment of pneumonia, febrile neutropenia, uncomplicated UTI, uncomplicated skin infection and complicated intraabdominal infections. Common adverse reactions include rash, hypophosphatemia, diarrhea. Cefepime is metabolized to N-methylpyrrolidine (NMP) which is rapidly converted to the N-oxide (NMP-N-oxide). Urinary recovery of unchanged cefepime accounts for approximately 85% of the administered dose. Less than 1% of the administered dose is recovered from urine as NMP, 6.8% as NMP-N-oxide, and 2.5% as an epimer of cefepime. Because renal excretion is a significant pathway of elimination, patients with renal dysfunction and patients undergoing hemodialysis require dosage adjustment. NCATS
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